Farmall 560 Diesel Post-Factory Turbocharger Kit

By Michael Osweiler
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Pulled from a chapter in Red 4WD Tractors, author Michael Osweiler unpacks the Post-Factory Turbocharger Kit that added the bells and whistles to the IH 560 diesel tractor. For more information, check out these original 1963 and 1964 IH 560 Turbocharger Kit Installation Instructions, shared by the author. 

The turbocharger kit for the IH 560 diesel tractor is a little-known factory option that has high-horsepower mystique. Similar to the Shelby performance upgrades offered by Ford for the 1960s Mustangs, the IH turbo kit increased engine performance and gave the machine a bit more appeal as well.

International’s 60 series tractors (models 460, 560, and 660) were designed, manufactured, and produced without a factory-installed turbocharger. The 1958 model International 560 was offered with several engine options, including a normally-aspirated 282-cubic-inch diesel engine. Several years after its introduction, International offered a factory-authorized turbocharger kit P/N 407055R91 that could be installed on 560 diesel engines at authorized IH dealers. Only a few people ordered these kits, and a limited number have survived to modern times.

The story of the IH kit began in the mid-1950s, when Caterpillar started working with the Garrett AiResearch turbocharger division, now known as Honeywell, to develop the Model T15 turbocharger for Cat’s D9 crawler. AiResearch also started work on its T600 series turbochargers sized for small to mid-size diesel engines. The T600 series turbocharger would soon find its way into a variety of International Harvester, Caterpillar, and Waukesha engines.
In July 1958, International introduced its new line of 60s series tractors. The Model 560 would become the most popular model with new 6-cylinder gas, propane, and diesel engine options. It was advertised as a 5-plow performance tractor. At that time, the playing field consisted of a moderate list of competing players.

New IH 560 owners would soon discover that their tractor fell short of its advertised performance and that brute pulling performance was only marginally better that its competition, the John Deere 730 and J.I. Case 730. While it was advertised as having 5-plow performance, the 560 was more realistically a 4-plow tractor.
For a few years, the IH 560 enjoyed a competitive lead over its rivals. The new technology features that the tractor offered offset its marginal power improvements. In 1960, John Deere changed the market by introducing its new generation six-cylinder model 4010. The power output was approximately 30 percent greater than the 560’s claimed output. In 1961, Allis Chalmers introduced the industry’s first factory-equipped turbocharged engine in their new model, the D-19 tractor. The D19’s six-cylinder turbo diesel made 17 percent more drawbar horsepower than the IH 560.
In 1959, International Harvester’s industrial division introduced a new engine for the TD9 crawler line, replacing the 350-cubic-inch four-cylinder diesel with IH’s new 282-cubic-inch turbocharged six-cylinder diesel. It was IH’s desire to increase the horsepower of its low-cost, versatile 282 diesel engine in order to use it in a wide variety of applications. The 282 diesel engine was the first IH-designed diesel engine to incorporate a factory-installed turbocharger.
This new AiResearch (Honeywell) Model T606 turbocharger was designed for low cost and small size. The unit weighed approximately 24 lbs. It was designed for continuous operation at 75,000 rpm with air flows up to 30 lb. /min. and a 2.3 pressure ratio. Various turbine housing Area Radius (AR) ratios were available to change power output to match the application. The turbocharged DT282 engine in the TD9-92 crawler application produced 66 flywheel horsepower and 55.7 drawbar horsepower.
In 1962, IH introduced another TD9 upgrade, the TD9B Series crawler. With simple adjustments to the fuel injection pump timing, this 9B Series turbocharged 282 diesel engine produced 75 flywheel horsepower and 60 drawbar horsepower at 1850 maximum rated RPM. The low-flow, AiResearch Model T606 turbocharger with .38 area radius (AR) ratio turbine housing served primarily as an altitude compensation device. IH advertised the turbocharged 282D engine in its crawler brochure as one that would “produce sustained ‘sea level’ high-power output, and increase in torque at altitudes up to 10,000 feet, while achieving excellent fuel economy.” With the addition of the IH turbocharger, operators could achieve approximately 23 percent torque rise at 1800 rpm to achieve 5 plow performance capability.


Aftermarket M&W Turbocharger Kits

An interesting aspect of the 560 turbo saga is that a number of IH dealers claim that they had been installing the popular M&W turbo kits on the 560D in advance of IH’s official part number turbo kit introduction. The M&W unit was easier to install and offered a provision for fitment of their turbo kit on the existing IH exhaust manifold which meant that the same engine hood cut-out could be used. This was not the case with the IH turbo. The M&W turbo PN 7E-001 was a Rayjay model. As installed on the IH 560D, this unit had a turbine exhaust nozzle that was slightly larger (.57 Area Radius (AR) ratio) than the IH 560 offering. Therefore, engine rpm had to be increased from the 1800 design setting to approximately 2000-2200 rpm in order to produce the required mass flow through engine/turbo for desired power increase. The AiResearch T606 turbine housing came in three flavors: .32, .38, and .57 A/R's. The .38 A/R was used for the 560D. The smaller .38 nozzle was sized to accommodate the standard, design rated 1800 rpm setting of the 282D engine. Retired IH mechanics from that era claim that 560 operators were purchasing turbo components from IH industrial line before IH officially offered the part number 407055R91 kit.

Commencing in the early 1960s, Illinois based M&W Gear Company offered a variety of aftermarket turbocharger kits for farm tractor applications. These included International Harvester, John Deere, Case, Ford, Massey Ferguson and Minneapolis Moline. M&W turbocharger kits utilized the Rajay turbocharger that was manufactured by Texas based Rajay Industries. Rayjay Industries was in direct competition with Garrett AiResearch, now a subsidiary of Honeywell. As tractor manufactures began integrating turbochargers on their engines at the factory level in the 1970s/80s era, there was a reduced demand for M&W aftermarket kits. AiResearch remained a top supplier of turbochargers to tractor and engine manufacturers. Due to reduced turbocharger kit demand in the late 1980s, M&W terminated production of their turbocharger kits.   

The IH Turbo Kit

IH Turbocharge Kit P/N 407055R91 consisted of an AiResearch Model T606 turbocharger, a turbo exhaust manifold, and an optional 176 CFM dry-type air cleaner. The kit included all the parts needed for installation. The hood cowl had to be cut out approximately 2.5 inches forward of the original exhaust outlet to accommodate the forward-oriented exhaust manifold and larger exhaust system used in the turbo kit. The exhaust opening on the IH kit was slightly larger in diameter than the M&W exhaust. When the installation was complete, the forward mounted 3 ¾-inch diameter, the wide-radius curved exhaust stack, and the cowl-mounted 176 CFM dry-type air cleaner gave the 560D tractor a distinctive and assertive look. The few owners of these tricked out, high tech turbo tractors were considered king-of-the-hill.
IH produced several different kit installation/information guides. One of the IH installation manuals sternly warned against unauthorized installation of the turbocharger, stating that “the IH 560D Tractors were not designed for use with a turbocharger and adherence to a list of suggestions will minimize a series problems that might arise in the cooling and power train and air induction systems.”
In another manual version, IH had changed their approach and assertively pointed out the features and benefits to be realized by installing their turbocharger kit, i.e., The benefits of increased fuel economy, more power and smoother power for your IH 560 Diesel can be yours . . . All this adds up to increased power for you— up to 25 percent.” This manual also contained operator testimonials stating that the kit made their 560 capable of pulling a 5-bottom plow in third-gear.
Many operators and dealers still remember these turbo 560s and attest that the IH turbocharger made the 282D engine run more smoothly and with improved reliability (provided it was run with proper setting of the fuel injection pump). IH manuals stated that the turbo kit was not recommended for the 660 model; the 660’s 282D engine operated at higher RPMs than the 560. Use of the turbo kit would spin the turbocharger above its limits, which could damage the engine.
The IH and M&W turbocharger kits on the 560 diesel engine marked the beginning of the performance turbocharger era for farm tractors. Farmers were demanding more performance, and the technological advances introduced on tractors of the 1960s and 1970s delivered not only increased power, but also improved operator comfort.

This 1961 Farmall 560 diesel is equipped with the IH post-factory turbocharger kit. The original owner was a Minnesota dairy farmer who purchased the tractor from his local IH dealer in Minnesota in 1961. The same IH dealer also installed the IH post factory turbo kit on the original owner’s tractor, but it is not known what year the turbo kit was installed. The tractor is all original, except for the 56 Series flat-top fenders. Michael Osweiler

The dry-type air cleaner installed with the factory turbo kit, as it was shown in the IH installation guide. Note that the canister air cleaner is mounted just forward of the steering wheel and has flange-type mounts. Lyle DeVos Collection

The turbocharger’s air delivery system. Lyle DeVos Collection

The side view of the turbocharger. Michael Osweiler

Floyd, Harold and Morris Nelson of Yankton, South Dakota, are shown with their turbocharger-equipped 560 diesel. The tractor had 1700 hours of trouble-free use with the turbo when the photograph was taken. The brothers said the tractor would easily pull five-bottom 16-inch plow in third gear. This photograph appeared in one of the IH factory turbo kit installation manuals. Lyle DeVos Collection